Virus, Virology / Antibiotics / Bacteriology Technology Offers

Centre Technology Transfer CITTRU posted this:

Staphylococci (Staphylococcus) are one of the most important human bacterial pathogens. Many methods have been developed for the identification and typing of bacterial isolates of the genus Staphylococcus (Staphylococcus aureus) in recent years. These methods can be divided into two groups: phenotypic and genotypic methods. The results obtained using commercial tests, which are based on biochemical and immunological reactions profiles, are affected by mistakes due to variable expression of phenotypic features and the ambiguity from the interpreting the test results. The overall accuracy of conventional tests is low and it is in the range 50-70%. Among genotypic methods, DNA-DNA hybridisation and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis have defined the species in the genus Staphylococcus and they are recommended to confirm the results of the new methods that are introduced into general use. However, there is still no universal method for staphylococcal species identification and typing at the same time, which would be widely used in all laboratories and allow to obtain high reproducibility of the results. The proposed method may determine the species identification and phylogenetic relationships in the genus Staphylococcus. It shows a high sensitivity and specificity. The results of this method can be interpret very easy, even in the case of the intraspecific polymorphisms. There is the possibility to differentiate between even very closely related species such as S. delphini, S. intermedius and S. pseudintermedius.

Centre Technology Transfer CITTRU posted this:

Viral infections are associated with numerous human and animal diseases. However, due to difficulties in identification of viruses and their high variability, the etiological factors of numerous diseases are unknown, as for example in a Kawasaki’s disease. The respiratory diseases are the examples of difficulties in identification of viruses in clinical material. Lasting many years research on these diseases still lead to the identification of new viruses, e.g. human coronavirus NL63 or HKU1, human bocavirus, SARS virus or EMC coronavius. The inability to their identification is due to high variability of viruses and the imperfect detection system. Currently used methods for the identification of known viruses include a variety of methods, from the cell culture by testing for presence of antigens, to molecular methods allowing for the amplification of nucleic acids. Molecular methods also include methods to identify new viruses or variants of viruses undetectable by standard methods. The most sensitive method for the identification of viruses is the use of universal primers in a standard amplification of nucleic acids. The methodology uses the presence of solid, conservative sites in the genomes of viruses belonging to a single family. The use of such sites for primer design brings a hope that in the case of unknown viruses, these fragments will also be present and it will be possible the amplification and identification of new viruses and new variants of known viruses. The biggest disadvantage of this method is its effectiveness limited to viruses that have the same elements with a length of 18-25 nucleotides, which indicates their relationship. Some convenience in this case is CODEHOP method that allows the use of protein fragments and conservative design of highly degenerative primers. The proposed identification method of RNA viruses finds an application in faster and better diagnosis of the infections of RNA viruses.