Technology Transfer Office
RAMOT at Tel Aviv University Ltd. posted this:High Voltage Photovoltaic Cells with High EfficiencyA novel photovoltaic cell is described for converting sunlight to electricity at higher efficiency relative to existing cells, and with improved flexibility for integration in modules, both one-sun and concentrating. The new cell contains many small sub-cells, which are internally connected in series. Such configurations are called Monolithic Integrated Modules (MIM) and they are capable of providing very high open circuit voltage. Our MIM design is based on a monolithic device with vertical PN junctions with significant expected advantages in performance relative to existing MIM designs: higher voltage; smaller contact area and no front metallization grid, leading to higher efficiency; better utilization of the solar spectrum; and better matching to integration in modules including concentrator modules. High-voltage cells can be electrically connected in parallel instead of series, leading to nearly independent operation (voltage-coupled instead of current-coupled) even under non-uniform illumination and even partial shading conditions. This will improve the overall performance of a photovoltaic system, and permit a less demanding and less expensive optical design. Project ID : 6-2011-180
IMDEA Water Institute posted this:Treatment of water from bentonite slurryWhy Does Water From Slurry Require Treatment? The problem arises once the slurry is used and subjected to the separation process by applying a filter press, in order to reuse the water to generate new slurry. The water, due to the loss of quality it suffers during the construction process, interferes with the proper functioning of bentonite, forming an unstable slurry, which tends to flocculate, and thus loses the necessary properties for application. Processing these waters entails a considerable environmental improvement, in addition to cutting operating costs by reducing water consumption and the dumping of effluent which, due to the physicochemical characteristics acquired, is not suitable for discharge under current legislation.
IMDEA Water Institute posted this:Economic analysis of water resources managementThe main lines of research of the group are: •Water management in areas vulnerable to extreme weather events: drought risk and water scarcity. •Tools and methods for assessing potential climate change impacts, costs & benefits, and risks & opportunities. •Link between science (i.e. water economics) and policymaking (i.e. EU Freshwater Policy). •Hydroeconomic analysis of water investments. •Economic analysis of biophysical flows of ecosystem services. •Groundwater management.
IMDEA Water Institute posted this:Water Footprint assessment to minimize the impacts to the Water Footprint valueWater footprint is a novel indicator of freshwater use, which quantifies the volume of water required by a product, service or activity when and where it is consumed. It includes both direct and indirect freshwater consumption. It also provides information on sustainability, by comparing the Water Footprint value with the availability and quality of water resource in situ. The final aim is to manage an improvement strategy designed to minimize the impacts related to this Water Footprint value. The three colours of water: • Green water. Rainwater, stored in soil as humidity, removed by plants in evapotranspiration processes. It is the main component in agrifood industries. • Blue water. Water volume that depends on a more or less complex infrastructure for its use. Its origin may be surface or subterranean. The traditional indicators for water use have focused on this component. • Grey water. Water volume that is required to buffer the concentration of pollutants that are spread in the environment. It depends on the quantity and quality of the spill, the essential quality of the receiving environment and the standards that are used to assess the environmental quality. Water footprint can be assessed in multiple scopes or levels (process, product, consumer, producer, business) by considering both direct and indirect impacts over the whole life cycle. Nowadays it is possible to achieve Water Footprint certification by implementing one of these two international standards: • WATER FOOTPRINT NETWORK – Water footprint assessment manual • ISO 14046 – Water footprint – Principles, requirements and guidelines
IMDEA Water Institute posted this:Geomatics laboratory for water resources managementIMDEA Water works on the methodological development and application of different spatial tools to support water resources management, including environmental mapping, remote sensing, the design and implementation of spatial databases and geoportals, applications for provisioning networks, and hydrological and hydrogeological modelling. New spatial information sources (LIDAR, GPS, digital terrain models, high-resolution imaging or drones) enable us to create new, high-resolution thematic mappings. Remote sensing techniques help derive biophysical vegetation variables (vegetation indices, water stress, agricultural output, crop evapotranspiration, etc.), geological mapping, soil usage, etc. Spatial databases record and order this information, forming a Hydrological Information System able to analyse the topological and quantitative relationships of different variables, the development of advanced 3D mapping and its implementation in web geoportals. Hydrogeological modelling by means of individual numerical models and/or coupled with hydrogeochemical models allows us to assess water resources in terms of their quantity and quality, and can be the basis for decision-making on the issue of water resources, both for surface water and groundwater bodies. Combining the extraction of data contained in old mappings and geo-positioning techniques with GPS allows the identification of hydraulic heritage elements for the development of decision-making support strategies.
IMDEA Water Institute posted this:Laboratory techniques for contaminant transport assessmentLaboratory techniques: Experimental analysis of processes affecting transport of contaminants through the vadose zone and the aquifer are necessary to interpret field data, especially when the recognition at field level is hampered by the complexity of the environmental system. Batch and column experiments, specifically designed to simulate field conditions as reliably as possible, provide valuable information on interaction between contaminants and vadose zone and/or aquifer materials. These laboratory techniques are also useful to assess the response in terms of contaminant removal during water reuse and water treatment activities. Experimental study should always be coupled with numerical modelling to quantify contaminant transport parameters, with the aim of finding the nexus between field and laboratory research.
IMDEA Water Institute posted this:Aquatic ecotoxicology and ecological risk assessmentEcotoxicology is a multidisciplinary science which aims to assess how interaction between pollutants and the environment affects ecosystems, taking into account the susceptibility of individuals, populations and communities to be affected by and recover from any type of toxic stress. Assessing ecological risk from pollutants requires preliminary research into the emission and transport of contaminating substances in the environment and the exposure to which live organisms may be subjected. Likewise, laboratory and/or field experiments help evaluate the toxic effects caused by different pollutants and exposure patterns. Finally, the results of these studies are combined to calculate the likelihood of ecosystems being affected by the use of potentially toxic substances.
IMDEA Water Institute posted this:Land application systems for urban wastewater treatment of small built-up areasA Land Application Systems (Figure 1) is a plot area, sized according to the influent to be treated, which has forests installed and is irrigated with wastewater. The residual water partially evaporates and the rest is taken up by the roots of trees and filtered through the soil. Before application to the soil, it is desirable to introduce a primary treatment system, to remove coarse solids, sand, grease and solids. But these systems provide more than just simple purification, because while treating the water, we are also producing biomass with high economic value. Unlike conventional waste water treatment systems, no external energy input is needed, so the running and maintenance costs are greatly reduced. Furthermore, it is a robust technology and the operation is simple. This technology is therefore ideal for treatment of urban waste water from small towns, with strong flow oscillations.
IMDEA Water Institute posted this:Ecological assessment of groundwater and groundwater dependent ecosystemsAn integrated management of groundwater resources requires a complete monitoring of biological, ecological and physical-chemical water properties in order to enhance our understanding on the ecosystem services they provide. IMDEA Water offers environmental services and fauna survey in groundwater (GW) and groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs) (i.e. the hyporheic zone of rivers, wetlands) for the groundwater resource sector. In order to ensure an adequate quality of groundwater for urban and rural consumption and considering the protection of aquatic resources to accomplish the directives regulations concerning water resources (Water Framework Directive, WFD 2000/60/EC, Directive on Environmental Quality, DEC 2008/105/EC and Groundwater Directive, GWD 2006/118/EC), we offer our integrated environmental consulting service on ecological assessment of GW and GDEs using a combination of traditional and innovative techniques for monitoring, evaluation and ecological analysis of GW biotic communities. We provide cost effective project solutions and outstanding client relations by delivering scientifically rigorous surveys on groundwater ecosystems.
IMDEA Water Institute posted this:Permeable reactive beds for groundwater recharge with reclaimed wastewaterAt IMDEA Water Institute, in association with the Alcalá University and the Rey Juan Carlos University, we implement Permeable Reactive Beds technology as a wastewater reclamation treatment for application in artificial groundwater recharge activities. This technology is considered an in situ passive treatment, based on reactive materials which act as a filter for the water that goes through it. The filter retains or sorbs the chemicals, improving the water quality. This technology is the result of combining two well-known remediation techniques: SAT – Soil Aquifer Treatment and PRB – Permeable Reactive Barrier) (Fig.1). The main contribution of Permeable Reactive Beds technology is that it includes several layers of different reactive materials (natural or artificial), forming a horizontal barrier, so that the pollutants are removed from the water and are retained or modified by the solid phase through physical, chemical and/or biological processes (including precipitation, sorption, redox and degradation). Many parameters have influence over these processes, such as pH, redox potential, concentration or temperature. Permeable Reactive Beds can be settled either on the ground (superficial setting) (Fig. 1b) or in a trench (dug) (Fig. 1a). This horizontal position ensures reclamation of the water that flows through the bed.
IMDEA Water Institute posted this:Water resources and contaminant transport modellingWhy modelling? Numerical models are important tools in the study of water resources. They can help understand processes (and their importance) that occur in a certain geological context. The rapid progress in the development of numerical models and computer hardware has improved simulation capability to an extent where we can routinely develop basin scale models. One of the main driving forces for hydrogeological model is the need to assess water supply potential of aquifers. Over the past 20 years, however, the emphasis has shifted from water supply problems to water quality issues. This means that while formerly the focus was almost exclusively on developing methods to assess and measure the water-yielding properties of aquifers, now the focus is largely on transport and dispersion processes, retardation and degradation of chemical contaminants. Numerical models are also applied to describe and interpret the reactive processes affecting contaminant transport through the porous media during laboratory-level experiments.
Research & Technology Organization
Universidad de Alcalá-OTRI posted this:Risk management of the effects of solar activity: Device and procedure of obtaining in real time and high resolution, the Local Geomagnetic Disturbance at middle latitudes.The research team specialized in Space Meteorology within the Space Research Group of the University of Alcalá, has developed a device and procedure that, based on the measurement of the local geomagnetic field, is able to estimate the magnetic disturbance component associated to solar activity at middle latitudes. The determination of the magnetic disturbance component is especially relevant in cases of sporadic but explosive solar phenomena. From the perspective of the actual user, the present invention constitutes an essential element in the risk management of the effects of solar activity on vulnerable technologies, both ground-based and satellite-based (electric power, rail transport, terrestrial and positioning navigation systems, radio and satellite communication systems ...), increasing the capacities of public administrations, civil protection and emergencies and the companies themselves, in order to prepare a successful strategy for adverse conditions related to the solar activity. The group is looking for collaboration and/or commercial agreements with the Central Administration, Civil Protection, Critical Infrastructure, Electric Power companies, Rail Network, Oil pipelines companies, Gas Pipelines companies, Insurance firms, etc...
Claude Waudoit posted this:
IMDEA Water Institute posted this:Membrane technology and Transformation of disposed reverse osmosis membranes into recycled membranesMembrane technology is the generic term used for any separation process in which membranes are employed. A membrane can be defined as a physical barrier separating two phases and allowing a selective transition of compounds from one phase to the other. The part that goes through the membrane is the permeate and the part that is rejected by the membrane is the retentate (Figure 1, Membrane technology separation scheme). Membrane technology can be applied for purposes such as: • Water purification: undesired impurities are removed from the solution. For example: soft water production by removal of calcium and magnesium cations • Concentration: required components are present at a low concentration and the solvent is removed. For example: concentrating fruit juice by removing water • Fractionation: a mixture must be separated into two or more desired components. For example: milk fractionation in the dairy industry Membranes can be classified depending on the compounds that membranes are able to separate (Figure 2, pressure driven membranes).