Protecting Man and Environment Technology Offers Page 3

Fundació URV posted this:

The ELECTRE-H Software Package implements two new methods for ranking and ordered classification decision problems considering multiple criteria structured into a hierarchy. The hierarchy of criteria is a tool that allows the decision maker to better organize the problem based on its domain knowledge and needs, decomposing the general problem into smaller sub-problems. Both methods follow the well-known outranking model and belong to the family of ELECTRE methods. The ELECTRE approach is inspired on the voting-like procedure based on the opinion of the majority but also respecting the minorities (by allowing veto power). The software available to use ELECTRE methods does not allow a hierarchical decomposition of the problem, but on a flat organization of criteria. The ELECTRE-H for hierarchical sets of criteria was defined by Dr. Del Vasto and Dr. Valls (from URV) and Dr. Slowinski and Dr. Zielniewicz (from Poznán University of Technology, Poland). The papers can be found here: The novelties of these two methods are the following: -It fully applies the standard outranking procedure of ELECTRE at all the levels of the hierarchy of criteria (concordance and discordance indices are obtained from the results of the previous layer and exploited at each node to generate new results). -The user will get a result (a ranking or classification) at each intermediate node of the hierarchy as well as the root (or overall) node. -Preference uncertainty can be managed at each node of the hierarchy with its particular discrimination threshold values. -Veto power can be given to the appropriate nodes in the hierarchy, to avoid compensation with the rest of related criteria. -Different scales of measurement can be used both in the elementary criteria and in the intermediate criteria. -For the case of sorting, simple IF…THEN… decision rules are used to define the categories. The novelty of the software ELECTRE-H is that it is the implementation of these methods given by the authors. This guarantees that the program is fully following the methodology proposed. Its main features are: -Clear and easy-to-understand user interface. -Data can be easily provided using an Excel file. -All the parameters of the model can be easily changed in the user interface. -The results obtained can be graphically displayed (i.e. partial pre-orders, rankings) and exported into a PNG image or text files. Also, the calculations of the results are provided in log files. -Additional statistical tools to compute correlations for different ranking and classification results on the same set of alternatives and hierarchy are available. - A distance-based statistical tool to compare partial preorders is available. -The “Simos revised procedure” to calculate numerical values for criteria weights is available. -Analysis of the results can be done at different levels of the hierarchy. -The software supports large number of alternatives and criteria. Also the structure of the hierarchy is only limited to be a tree (each node has a single parent). The software is designed to be easy to use while providing the full functionality required in these two methods.

University of Vigo posted this:

Many industries, such as those belonging to the textile, wine, and paper industry, consume huge volumes of water and, as a result, generate a large amount of contaminated water containing persistent colour pollutant compounds. These compounds represent an environmental and health threat due to their well-known associated problems, such as carcinogenicity, toxicity and mutagenicity. Furthermore, they entail a great environmental impact when discharged in aquatic environments, perceptible at very low concentrations, creating an undesirable visual impact, which, in many cases, does not meet the degree of conformity under the current directives on the wastewater treatment for industrial effluents (Directive 91/271 / EEC). The solution proposed by the research group Chemical Engineering at the University of Vigo, is the use as adsorbent of peat, or a similar lignocellulosic material, immobilized in calcium alginate beads. This process is efficient, cheap and environmentally friendly, unlike other processes and technologies. In fact, the utilization of peat instead of activated carbon as industrial adsorbent has the advantage that peat requires no activation, unlike activated carbon, reducing operating costs. In addition, the low cost of the adsorbent would be translated into significant economic benefits. Moreover, depending on the contaminant removed from the waste effluent, the exhausted adsorbent may be used as soil fertilizer at its end of life.