Chemical Technology and Engineering Technology Offers Page 9

Universidad de Alicante posted this:

This method has two stages: 1) Dispersion of, at least, an inorganic material in water. 2) Addition of, at least, an organic coloring solubilized by agitation. The following parameters might be changed in order to obtain different kinds of nanopigments: • Inorganic material concentration. • Organic coloring concentration. • pH. • Temperature. • Ionic strength. The optical response of nanopigments changes as a function of the particle size of the inorganic material (or materials) used by the diffusion. This method makes it possible to produce new hybrid nanopigments with optical and colloidal properties for tailored applications. Mainly, the customizaton of the behaviour of this materials is achieved by controlling organic/inorganic ratio in the material. The morphology of the material is hybrid (laminar/fibrillar). The organic coloring is selected among different types: azoic complexes, metallic, sulphurose, iminoquinone, antraquinone, ftalocianine, etc. In general words, they can be both natural or synthetic. Products can be used in printing inks, painting and dyes, paper, synthetic or natural fibers, polymer materials, cosmetics, etc. With this method the following features can be achieved: Color range control: Through the control over the different spectral species, the optical response is modified too, so the color range can be enlarged. Increase in the colouring power: The ability of the material for increasing the absorption on the surface is linked to three parameters. First, absorption coefficient of the nanopigment in relation to the coloring solution coefficient. Second, light dispersion caused by nanoparticles and addtiional coverage of the surface to fill. Third, reology and fisico-chemical properties of the material are able to obtain homogeneous dispersions. Environmental impact reduction: Some of the usual pigments contain heavy metals in its composition while inorganic solids used in this method are free of heavy metals and can even be used in cosmetics. Natural coloring can be combined with these nanopigments and obtain a new product which will be environmental safe.

Universidad de Alicante posted this:

Basically, the catalytic trap bed is composed of a zeolite with a Si/Al ratio between 10 and 20. The zeolite is partially interchanged with cations of one or several non-noble metals. In order to achieve an optimum performance of the catalytic trap, these metals should be interchanged in the internal zeolite structure, and never on its external surface. In this way, the outflow of the exhaust gases passes through the catalytic trap bed to adsorb the HC at low temperatures. The material has been developed at laboratory scale. Different compositions of this material have been tested with simulated streams of internal combustion engines (cold starts). As a result, the material is able to reduce HC emissions in internal combustion engines operating with both mixtures almost stoichiometric and low fuel mixtures. The main difference between this invention and other existing materials is that this catalytic trap avoids any element or additional layer composed of an oxidation catalyst based on noble metals. Consequently, HC emissions could be totally removed through a single bed without using high-cost materials (noble metals) or further stream treatments. This fact allows the catalytic trap to be placed in any position according to the different control systems employed for decreasing other pollutant emissions existing in the gases stream, since the total elimination of HC takes place on the catalytic trap. Thus, this technology development results in a solid material where coexists metal(s) and protons in an optimum ratio inside of the zeolite channels, leading to a system that can act as a HC trap and as an oxidation catalyst in only a single bed, during the whole cold start cycle. The main innovative aspect of this catalytic trap is that the adsorbent material can capture the hydrocarbons in the cold start of the engine and oxidize gases during its warmed-up operating conditions without using noble metals, which are frequently used as oxidation catalyst. At high temperatures, this material is able to carry out total oxidation of both hydrocarbons retained by the catalytic trap and those present in the exhaust gas stream. Consequently, the resulting gas stream released to the atmosphere is innocuous in hydrocarbons. • Noble metals are not used. • Structural advantages, since the control systems are simplified and pollutants in internal combustion engines are reduced. • Economic benefits (The price of noble metal is approximately 100 times more expensive than the materials employed by the researchers). • The catalytic trap can be placed in any position with regard to different control systems. • Besides its hydrocarbon trapping role, the system can also act as oxidation catalyst during the cold-start cycle.

RAMOT at Tel Aviv University Ltd. posted this:

Plants contain numerous microorganisms, in particular fungi. They are collectively referred to endophytes. Endophytic fungi are beneficial for the hosting plant, therefore the co-existence from day 1. The advantages for the plants include growth enhancement, protection from pathogens and pests, ability to grow and reproduce in sub-optimal conditions such as water limiting conditions and sub or supra- optimal temperatures. During cultivation, important genes have been lost and scientist are trying to find genes in wild populations and add them back into cultivated plants. ICCI specializes in diseases of cereals. Work is done on isolation of disease resistance genes from wild relatives of wheat and introduction into cultivated wheat. We propose to complement the genetic efforts by producing disease resistance through the use of endophytic fungi; Similar to gene loss, we believe that essential microorganisms have been lost during cultivation. We will utilize the vast collection of seeds from wild relative of wheat and barley to identify hidden endophytes that contribute to plant disease resistance and survival in arid and warm climate. After identifying such endophytes in the wild plants, we will introduce the most beneficial species into cultivated wheat and barley. This approach has been already used successfully in pasture plants. Expected outcome: 1. Novel knowledge on the composition of endophytic species in wild grasses relatives of wheat 2. Patent of species with economical and agricultural potential 3. Development of pathogen-protection in wheat and barley 4. Development of climate sustainability in wheat and barley Project ID : 2-2013-719
Plant endophytic fungi for crop protection and resistance to abiotic stress