Summary of the technology
Stroke is a major global health problem and is the second most common cause of death in Europe. Most patients who have suffered a stroke experience significant functional improvement during the first few weeks or months, although this may worsen in the long term (>6 months). This adds to the risk of mortality and hospital readmission up to 5 years later. It is known that 80% of stroke risk is attributable to poor control of modifiable risk factors and could therefore be prevented. Furthermore, nurse-led interventions in patients with chronic stroke have been shown to potentially reduce short and long-term readmissions, adequate control of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), good patient satisfaction, low stroke recurrence and good adherence to therapy. Thus, primary and secondary prevention of cerebrovascular disease is of great importance, but complex and not always efficiently organised.
Actions to improve primary and secondary prevention are largely behavioural and require sustained effort. Recently, there has been a new approach to the therapeutic approach to CVRFs, replacing passive interventions with active patient participation, empowerment and shared (patient-professional) decision making, such as health coaching (HC). HC focuses on the patient, helps them to help themselves, and activates their motivations for behavioural change. Thus, it works based on their perception of needs and problems, which enables readiness to change. With the HC, more effective changes are achieved in therapeutic adherence to chronic diseases (good CVRF control) and the implementation of healthy habits. Motivation for behavioural change lies between what the patient does and what he/she wants to do. However, to date there are no validated measurement instruments to objectively measure the patient's starting point and the goal to be achieved.
Description of the technology
We present a scale that allows us to measure the intervention through health coaching for stroke patients. This instrument favours the self-reflection of the person on their healthy behaviour, detecting the weak and strong aspects of each area. In addition, it is intended to be an outcome measure by administering the scale before and after individual coaching sessions. It allows the person with stroke to become aware of and self-assess himself/herself in the coaching process. In addition, it allows outcome measurement by comparing before and after lifestyle changes and can therefore be used in routine clinical practice through coaching sessions and in research studies.
The scale can be self-administered and consists of 11 items, which assess the self-perception of the health status of the affected areas in stroke patients. These items represent 11 different areas: sleep and rest, nutrition and weight, social relationships, medication, quality of life, emotional well-being, self-image, pain and fatigue, analytical parameters, toxicants and physical activity; and each item can receive a score ranging from 0 - the patient is not satisfied - to 10 - the patient is fully satisfied. It ranges from 0 to 110 points. The median score obtained in its validation was 87 points with an interquartile range of 16.75 points. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.813, showing good reliability.
Short description of how tool can be used
The tool can be used for measuring the intervention through health coaching for stroke patients.