Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla posted this:PROCESS FOR PERFORMING TRANSESTERIFICATION REACTIONS USING ANIONIC CLAYS AND RESULTING PRODUCTS.The present invention refers to a process for performing transesterification reactions, mainly for obtaining alkyl ester from fatty acids and/or glycerine, more particularly for producing biodisel, which comprises the following stages: reaction of animal fats and/or vegetable oils either pure or used, with an alcohol at a temperature of from about 40 DEG C to about 300 DEG C in the presence of a catalyst that comprises the mixed oxides M2+OM3+2O3, M2+OMp+2OpM3+2O3 or mixtures thereof, where M2+ is a divalent cation, M3+ is a trivalent cation and Mp+ is at least a divalent or trivalent cation or a mixture thereof obtained by the calcination of materials, where the catalyst, previous the activation to be used as a catalyst, presents the X-ray diffraction pattern characteristic of the anionic clays which have a molar ratio M2+/M3 of 1 to 10, thus forming alkyl esters from fatty acids which are separated from the alcohol without reacting and from the glycerine, by decantation, filtration, centrif ugation and/or solid-liquid extraction.
Universidad de Alicante posted this:Sustainable production of biofuel (bioethanol) from shellfish wasteThe research group of Plant Pathology at the University of Alicante has developed a new process by using fungi to produce biofuel (bioethanol) and fungal biomass for agrobiotech use from shellfish waste. It is a sustainable alternative to agroforestry crops currently used. The current technology stands out because it uses chitosan as the sole source of nutrients, and produces bioethanol in profitable, sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. The research group is looking for companies or investors partners interested in acquiring this technology for commercial exploitation.
Universidad de Cádiz posted this:Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol• The action of the alkaline peroxide at moderate concentrations has been combined in one single stage. • The reaction times are short and the operating temperature is moderate. • The accessibility of the polysaccharides to the subsequent enzymatic attack is improved. • Hydrolysis yields of close to 100% are obtained. • Added value can be obtained from agricultural wastes rich in lignocellulose. • Low cost of implementation. • Simplicity of design.
Universidad de Cádiz posted this:New process for using beer bagasse (spent brewers grain) to obtain raw materials for the production of biofuelsCurrently, considerable quantities of lingo-cellulosic residues are generated continuously in many sectors of the agro-food industry. If these can be suitably processed, they are of great commercial interest to industry as potential raw materials for the production of biofuels and a variety of other high value-added products. The residual biomass of the agro-food industry typically has a high content in lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and other compounds of industrial interest. The only limitations to its use as a precursor of biofuel are the economic viability of the process for obtaining these precursors and their quality. One of the byproducts of special interest for this application is spent beer grain, also known as bagasse; given the existing lack of commercial value, this bagasse is widely available as a low-cost raw material. Currently, the principal application of bagasse is as feedstuff for livestock. In general, bagasse does not represent a source of income for breweries, and the reason why it is sold is to minimize the associated problems of waste management and disposal. The UCA research group on "Allelopathy in Higher Plants and Microorganisms" (FQM- 286) has developed an acid hydrolysis procedure whereby precursor materials for biofuels and other high -value-added products are obtained from beer bagasse. Its content in lipids and food fibre (equal to or more than 5% and 20%, dry weight, respectively), make it an ideal material for this application. This would represent a more attractive commercial outlet for many of the residues resulting from operations of the agro-food industry, and in particular, for beer bagasse. The object of the process is to obtain two different products. The first is an oil consisting mainly of the fats contained in the bagasse; the second is a substance rich in sugars or molasses. The oil is of interest as raw material for the production of biodiesel by the process of transesterification; the molasses can be employed as raw material for the production of bio-ethanol by means of fermentation. Molasses can also be formulated as sugar, after a crystallization process. The oil would be particularly useful for correcting the viscosity of biodiesel, thus achieving the optimum parameters for its use as biofuel. In outline, the process developed by the research group consists of a principal line, in which a series of operations take place for the conditioning of the bagasse, such as milling, extraction of lipids and the separation of the resulting solids. Downstream, this line divides into two secondary lines: in one line, for production of oils, the solvents from the prior extraction stage are separated out; in the other secondary line, for the production of molasses, an acid hydrolysis of the sugars is carried out. Another significant feature is that the optimum operating mode of the process is continuous operation, although batch loading is also accepted.
Universidad de Alicante posted this:Novel photobioreactor for mass cultivation of microalgaeThe main innovation of this invention is: • This novel photobioreactor combines the mechanism of a bubble column with the air-lift type for higher biomass production than that obtained for both systems separately.
Universidad de Cádiz posted this:New specific and optimized culture medium based on glycerine that increases the yield of processes for producing ethanol and hydrogenExploitation of the large amounts of glycerine produced as a by-product of the production of biodiesel and similar industrial processes. The employment of this culture medium increases the production yield of ethanol and hydrogen, in comparison with that obtained from the use of other sources of carbon. The effect of optimizing the culture medium is to reduce the costs and save energy in the industrial-scale fermentation process. No other alternative culture media exist that have been formulated and optimized for E. coli that would allow greater production yields of ethanol to be obtained. It represents a simple and attractive way of producing hydrogen and ethanol from a carbon source of low price and in plentiful supply. The high degree of reduction of the glycerine, in comparison with sugars, allows reduced chemical compounds such as succinate, xylitol, propionate, hydrogen and others to be obtained.