Protecting Man and Environment Technology Offers Page 5

University of Vigo posted this:

Many industries, such as those belonging to the textile, wine, and paper industry, consume huge volumes of water and, as a result, generate a large amount of contaminated water containing persistent colour pollutant compounds. These compounds represent an environmental and health threat due to their well-known associated problems, such as carcinogenicity, toxicity and mutagenicity. Furthermore, they entail a great environmental impact when discharged in aquatic environments, perceptible at very low concentrations, creating an undesirable visual impact, which, in many cases, does not meet the degree of conformity under the current directives on the wastewater treatment for industrial effluents (Directive 91/271 / EEC). The solution proposed by the research group Chemical Engineering at the University of Vigo, is the use as adsorbent of peat, or a similar lignocellulosic material, immobilized in calcium alginate beads. This process is efficient, cheap and environmentally friendly, unlike other processes and technologies. In fact, the utilization of peat instead of activated carbon as industrial adsorbent has the advantage that peat requires no activation, unlike activated carbon, reducing operating costs. In addition, the low cost of the adsorbent would be translated into significant economic benefits. Moreover, depending on the contaminant removed from the waste effluent, the exhausted adsorbent may be used as soil fertilizer at its end of life.

IMDEA Water Institute posted this:

Water footprint is a novel indicator of freshwater use, which quantifies the volume of water required by a product, service or activity when and where it is consumed. It includes both direct and indirect freshwater consumption. It also provides information on sustainability, by comparing the Water Footprint value with the availability and quality of water resource in situ. The final aim is to manage an improvement strategy designed to minimize the impacts related to this Water Footprint value. The three colours of water: • Green water. Rainwater, stored in soil as humidity, removed by plants in evapotranspiration processes. It is the main component in agrifood industries. • Blue water. Water volume that depends on a more or less complex infrastructure for its use. Its origin may be surface or subterranean. The traditional indicators for water use have focused on this component. • Grey water. Water volume that is required to buffer the concentration of pollutants that are spread in the environment. It depends on the quantity and quality of the spill, the essential quality of the receiving environment and the standards that are used to assess the environmental quality. Water footprint can be assessed in multiple scopes or levels (process, product, consumer, producer, business) by considering both direct and indirect impacts over the whole life cycle. Nowadays it is possible to achieve Water Footprint certification by implementing one of these two international standards: • WATER FOOTPRINT NETWORK – Water footprint assessment manual • ISO 14046 – Water footprint – Principles, requirements and guidelines

IMDEA Water Institute posted this:

IMDEA Water works on the methodological development and application of different spatial tools to support water resources management, including environmental mapping, remote sensing, the design and implementation of spatial databases and geoportals, applications for provisioning networks, and hydrological and hydrogeological modelling. New spatial information sources (LIDAR, GPS, digital terrain models, high-resolution imaging or drones) enable us to create new, high-resolution thematic mappings. Remote sensing techniques help derive biophysical vegetation variables (vegetation indices, water stress, agricultural output, crop evapotranspiration, etc.), geological mapping, soil usage, etc. Spatial databases record and order this information, forming a Hydrological Information System able to analyse the topological and quantitative relationships of different variables, the development of advanced 3D mapping and its implementation in web geoportals. Hydrogeological modelling by means of individual numerical models and/or coupled with hydrogeochemical models allows us to assess water resources in terms of their quantity and quality, and can be the basis for decision-making on the issue of water resources, both for surface water and groundwater bodies. Combining the extraction of data contained in old mappings and geo-positioning techniques with GPS allows the identification of hydraulic heritage elements for the development of decision-making support strategies.
Geomatics laboratory for water resources management