Other Energy Topics Technology Offers Page 2

Universidad de Alicante posted this:

Basically, the catalytic trap bed is composed of a zeolite with a Si/Al ratio between 10 and 20. The zeolite is partially interchanged with cations of one or several non-noble metals. In order to achieve an optimum performance of the catalytic trap, these metals should be interchanged in the internal zeolite structure, and never on its external surface. In this way, the outflow of the exhaust gases passes through the catalytic trap bed to adsorb the HC at low temperatures. The material has been developed at laboratory scale. Different compositions of this material have been tested with simulated streams of internal combustion engines (cold starts). As a result, the material is able to reduce HC emissions in internal combustion engines operating with both mixtures almost stoichiometric and low fuel mixtures. The main difference between this invention and other existing materials is that this catalytic trap avoids any element or additional layer composed of an oxidation catalyst based on noble metals. Consequently, HC emissions could be totally removed through a single bed without using high-cost materials (noble metals) or further stream treatments. This fact allows the catalytic trap to be placed in any position according to the different control systems employed for decreasing other pollutant emissions existing in the gases stream, since the total elimination of HC takes place on the catalytic trap. Thus, this technology development results in a solid material where coexists metal(s) and protons in an optimum ratio inside of the zeolite channels, leading to a system that can act as a HC trap and as an oxidation catalyst in only a single bed, during the whole cold start cycle. The main innovative aspect of this catalytic trap is that the adsorbent material can capture the hydrocarbons in the cold start of the engine and oxidize gases during its warmed-up operating conditions without using noble metals, which are frequently used as oxidation catalyst. At high temperatures, this material is able to carry out total oxidation of both hydrocarbons retained by the catalytic trap and those present in the exhaust gas stream. Consequently, the resulting gas stream released to the atmosphere is innocuous in hydrocarbons. • Noble metals are not used. • Structural advantages, since the control systems are simplified and pollutants in internal combustion engines are reduced. • Economic benefits (The price of noble metal is approximately 100 times more expensive than the materials employed by the researchers). • The catalytic trap can be placed in any position with regard to different control systems. • Besides its hydrocarbon trapping role, the system can also act as oxidation catalyst during the cold-start cycle.

RAMOT at Tel Aviv University Ltd. posted this:

Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women with over half a million cases occurring worldwide each year. Despite multi-modal approaches, this disease remains highly resistant and novel approaches for treatment are urgently needed. The cytotoxic effect of photo-excited titanium dioxide (TiO2) by far UV (254 nm) illumination, creating reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been examined in several cancer models in vitro. However, serious damage to the surround healthy cells limits the applicability of this approach. Thus, developing a technique that will achieve TiO2 photoxidative effect at the visible or near UV (>300 nm) range, causing less damage to the healthy is preferred. Our group has recently discovered a unique protein that binds strongly TiO2. This protein, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) is critical for energy and redox balance in the cell. Illumination of DLDH, independently, results in elevated levels of ROS. In addition, bioinformatics analysis has suggested that DLDH is a homologue of AIF (Apoptosis-inducing factor), a central player in apoptosis. Cervical cancer cells overexpress the cell surface receptor ?v?3 integrin, which interacts with proteins of the extra cellular matrix through an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) recognition site. We bio-engineered the human DLDH with RGD tails (RGD2-DLDH) and generated a protein capable of serving as a bridge between the integrin expressing cancer cell and the TiO2 in its natural and nanostructure forms. We propose that illumination of this complex (RGD2-DLDH-TiO2) will produce high ROS activity and cancer cell death and may serve as a "neo-radiation" targeted treatment in cervical cancer. We believe that the understanding gained from this work will be relevant to other integrin-expressing tumor models that have not been tested so far. Project ID : 8-2014-758