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UNIVERSIDAD DE ALICANTE posted this:How to get high added value products for industrial applications from agricultural wastes• The use of cocoa shell as a new lignocelulosic precursor to preparate activated carbon (monoliths) for industrial applications. • In contrast with current procedures used to synthesize activated carbon monoliths, in the present invention, the mounding of precursor is made before the carbonization and activation steps. • Raw material shows self-binder properties, so it is not necessary additional binders or additional steps for consolidation.
Universidad de Cádiz posted this:Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol• The action of the alkaline peroxide at moderate concentrations has been combined in one single stage. • The reaction times are short and the operating temperature is moderate. • The accessibility of the polysaccharides to the subsequent enzymatic attack is improved. • Hydrolysis yields of close to 100% are obtained. • Added value can be obtained from agricultural wastes rich in lignocellulose. • Low cost of implementation. • Simplicity of design.
Universidad de Cádiz posted this:The complete elimination of oily wasted using supercritical water oxidationThe technique exploits the extreme oxidation characteristics of supercritical water, (defined as 221 bar and 374 ºC). Under these conditions oils become soluble, and a single homogeneous reaction phase is obtained in which the organic compounds and oxygen are brought into contact. This results in an almost instantaneous break down of organic substances into harmless products, essentially water and CO2 (without the formation of NOx, SOx, CO or other products of incomplete oxidation). The University of Cadiz, a leading center of research for ecological waste treatment, recently conducted a comprehensive study of the hydrothermal treatment of a wide variety of compounds representing the principal effluents generated by industrial machining (classified as dangerous waste under current regulations). The research found the design achieved greater than 99% elimination of the contamination in only a few seconds. On the basis of these results, we consider the system to represent a significant breakthrough in the elimination of dangerous wastes, offering a commercially viable, ecological alternative to simply storing up toxic waste in tanks or ponds.
Universidad de Cádiz posted this:New process for using beer bagasse (spent brewers grain) to obtain raw materials for the production of biofuelsCurrently, considerable quantities of lingo-cellulosic residues are generated continuously in many sectors of the agro-food industry. If these can be suitably processed, they are of great commercial interest to industry as potential raw materials for the production of biofuels and a variety of other high value-added products. The residual biomass of the agro-food industry typically has a high content in lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and other compounds of industrial interest. The only limitations to its use as a precursor of biofuel are the economic viability of the process for obtaining these precursors and their quality. One of the byproducts of special interest for this application is spent beer grain, also known as bagasse; given the existing lack of commercial value, this bagasse is widely available as a low-cost raw material. Currently, the principal application of bagasse is as feedstuff for livestock. In general, bagasse does not represent a source of income for breweries, and the reason why it is sold is to minimize the associated problems of waste management and disposal. The UCA research group on "Allelopathy in Higher Plants and Microorganisms" (FQM- 286) has developed an acid hydrolysis procedure whereby precursor materials for biofuels and other high -value-added products are obtained from beer bagasse. Its content in lipids and food fibre (equal to or more than 5% and 20%, dry weight, respectively), make it an ideal material for this application. This would represent a more attractive commercial outlet for many of the residues resulting from operations of the agro-food industry, and in particular, for beer bagasse. The object of the process is to obtain two different products. The first is an oil consisting mainly of the fats contained in the bagasse; the second is a substance rich in sugars or molasses. The oil is of interest as raw material for the production of biodiesel by the process of transesterification; the molasses can be employed as raw material for the production of bio-ethanol by means of fermentation. Molasses can also be formulated as sugar, after a crystallization process. The oil would be particularly useful for correcting the viscosity of biodiesel, thus achieving the optimum parameters for its use as biofuel. In outline, the process developed by the research group consists of a principal line, in which a series of operations take place for the conditioning of the bagasse, such as milling, extraction of lipids and the separation of the resulting solids. Downstream, this line divides into two secondary lines: in one line, for production of oils, the solvents from the prior extraction stage are separated out; in the other secondary line, for the production of molasses, an acid hydrolysis of the sugars is carried out. Another significant feature is that the optimum operating mode of the process is continuous operation, although batch loading is also accepted.
Universidad de Cádiz posted this:New procedure for the elimination of nutrients from waste waters by photobiotreatment with microalgasUCA researchers have developed a new process for the treatment of waste waters by using microalgae, specifically for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. This process is based on applying three fundamental findings made by the research group: • Before the microalgae start to grow, they are already consuming nitrogen and phosphorus when cultivated in waste waters. • The microalgae accumulate nutrients internally in such a way that the assimilation of nutrients commences before the growth phase, and at a rate that is considerably faster than the rate during the generation of biomass. • The initial elimination of nutrients prior to the growth of biomass takes place at a similar rate both in darkness and in the presence of light. To exploit this phenomenon, a procedure has been designed in which the two phases take place separately in two reactors: the first phase for elimination of nutrients from the waste water in darkness (known as ‘luxury uptake’) and the second for the growth of biomass under illumination. What this achieves is not only the efficient removal of the nutrients from the waste water but also, by means of a simple change of the mode of operation of the process, nutrients can be eliminated at night using the excess of biomass generated during daylight hours. To implement this advance, the research group has conceived a process for the separation of the biomass from the culture medium in both phases, by means of membrane technologies. The treatment plant can operate with cellular retention times very much longer than the hydraulic residence times. This, in turn, allows the same flow volumes of waste water to be treated in smaller reactors. • It enables waste waters to be treated at night without the need for a luminous phase. This cannot currently be done with the processes that employ existing photosynthetic organisms. • Simplicity of operation and reduction of costs in comparison with conventional technologies. It avoids the production of more solid residues, i.e. sludges, which require disposal. • The use of microalgae allows the treatment of waste waters with high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus but low content of organic matter (a characteristic of the waste waters of steelworks), since autotrophic organisms are involved. Thus the proposed process avoids the need to add organic matter from an external source, as is the case of other biological processes. • With the possibility of generating energy and capturing CO2, the biomass generated in the process represents value added in terms of energy consumption and environmental protection
UNIVERSIDAD DE ALICANTE posted this:Noble metal-free ceria-based diesel soot combustion catalyst, suitable for gas purification in Diesel engine exhaustsThe developed catalyst does not use Pt, which leads to a cheaper product. The resulting catalyst shows equal or even better performance as Pt catalysts. Following the patented procedure of synthesis, the catalyst produced has a lower particle size. This leads to higher surface per particle and therefore, a better ratio yield when interacting in oxidation reactions, leading to a higher oxygen production rate.
UATEC - Unidade de Transferência de Tecnologia posted this:PCM Smart Window Protection SystemComparatively with the typical window shading solutions, the present innovation can store energy in different working positions, without blocking out the direct radiation or direct sunlight into the interior of the building spaces. The developed system uses phase change materials (PCMs), not only in the window protection but also for the complete shutter solution, which allows its optimization and uniqueness for solar gains. The system developed is adaptable to any type of weather conditions.
UATEC - Unidade de Transferência de Tecnologia posted this:Tungsten carbide based composite material, the appropriate method of production and applicationThe preferential production method of the composite material involves the sputtering for the modification of the particle surface by coating them with a nanocrystalline layer of iron-rich metallic binder with variable thickness. The rest of the processing follows the traditional powder metallurgy routes with pressing and sintering in a vacuum furnace. After processing, the composite contains tungsten carbide phase, eta-phase and iron rich binder.
UNIVERSIDAD DE ALICANTE posted this:Low cost sensors for the detection of gaseous hydrogen• New simple preparation method which does not require sophisticated instrumental techniques. • The procedure use low-cost materials and optimizes the loading of the metals employed. • This technology is efficient, producing robust and reliable sensors with high signal-to-response ratio and low cost. • The CNT and nanoparticle suspensions needed are stable and may be stored over long periods of time.
UNIVERSIDAD DE ALICANTE posted this:Intelligent power distribution system• Use distributed artificial intelligence techniques to streamline the supply. • Allows to set profiles of distribution according to the characteristics and temporal needs of users. • Can use external information to anticipate demand and establish preventive actions. It could use for example, information about the upcoming weather forecasts and establish the possible energy contributions from sources of generation based on renewable energies. • The behavior is dynamic and progressive, since it is capable of learning from the corrective actions that the user can set. • The system takes into account the storing of energy or batteries available, taking advantage of the surplus to minimize the events of power shortages. • Controls the behavior of devices that require power, optimizing its consumption and prioritizing those most needed according to the requirements of the users. • The system is scalable and distributed, which can be later expanded and in case of any failure, the rest of the system would still be operating.
Centre Technology Transfer CITTRU posted this:The new oxide catalysts for the removal of nitrogen oxides originating from stationary emission sources.The experiments carried out with the assistance of these catalysts showed a high conversion efficiency of nitric oxide to nitrogen at relatively low temperatures – up to 100%. Designed reactor allows the direct removal of nitric oxide from the exhaust gases via the efficient decomposition of nitric oxide and, at the same time, systematic removal of carbon particles and other solid particles.
UNIVERSIDAD DE ALICANTE posted this:Novel photobioreactor for mass cultivation of microalgaeThe main innovation of this invention is: • This novel photobioreactor combines the mechanism of a bubble column with the air-lift type for higher biomass production than that obtained for both systems separately.
UATEC - Unidade de Transferência de Tecnologia posted this:Planar diamond thermistors for harsh environments: applied to temperature measurements in combustion and jet engines for the automobile and aerospace industry, lasers, fuel cells and in biological and aggressive chemical environmentsThe new diamond thermistors can be used for temperature measurements in harsh environments such as aggressive chemicals at high temperature or in biological media due to their inertness. Furthermore, the sintered ceramic substrate guarantees superior adhesion and resistance to fracture under high mechanical loads. The fabricated temperature sensitive diamond surface comprises well adhered ohmic contacts deposited on the backside of the dielectric ceramic substrate. This configuration prevents interaction between the temperature sensitive surface and the surrounding environment which is essential for biochemical devices applications. Furthermore, the planar geometry of the disclosed thermistor maximizes the contact region between the temperature sensitive surface and any solid flat surface on which it is placed. In this way, improved response times are obtained comparing to traditional round shaped thermistors.
Universitat de València posted this:HyLED optospintronics devicesThe most innovative aspect of this innovation is that provides new optospintronic devices with low emission threshold voltages. Also, the new devices have the following advantages: Efficiency: light emission threshold voltages from 2 V. Stability: use of air-stable electrodes, with high work function. Spin valve properties (magnetoresistance): control of electrical properties by means of magnetic fields, for example light intensity and colour. Low cost: manufacture with commercial and readily available materials, using soluble deposition methods, much cheaper, and viable on a large scale, that evaporative deposition methods.
Universitat de València posted this:Nitrogen removal control system based on low-cost sensorsThis control system allows optimization of the activated sludge process since maintains effluent nitrogen concentration under limit values with minimum energy consumption. The most remarkable advantages provided by this technology are: Cost reduction of initial investment and maintenance Easier operation than nutrient analysers Lower time response Lower aireation energy consumption Lower pumping energy consumption