Universidad de Cádiz posted this:Pre-treatment of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of second-generation bioethanol• The action of the alkaline peroxide at moderate concentrations has been combined in one single stage. • The reaction times are short and the operating temperature is moderate. • The accessibility of the polysaccharides to the subsequent enzymatic attack is improved. • Hydrolysis yields of close to 100% are obtained. • Added value can be obtained from agricultural wastes rich in lignocellulose. • Low cost of implementation. • Simplicity of design.
Universidad de Cádiz posted this:New process for using beer bagasse (spent brewers grain) to obtain raw materials for the production of biofuelsCurrently, considerable quantities of lingo-cellulosic residues are generated continuously in many sectors of the agro-food industry. If these can be suitably processed, they are of great commercial interest to industry as potential raw materials for the production of biofuels and a variety of other high value-added products. The residual biomass of the agro-food industry typically has a high content in lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and other compounds of industrial interest. The only limitations to its use as a precursor of biofuel are the economic viability of the process for obtaining these precursors and their quality. One of the byproducts of special interest for this application is spent beer grain, also known as bagasse; given the existing lack of commercial value, this bagasse is widely available as a low-cost raw material. Currently, the principal application of bagasse is as feedstuff for livestock. In general, bagasse does not represent a source of income for breweries, and the reason why it is sold is to minimize the associated problems of waste management and disposal. The UCA research group on "Allelopathy in Higher Plants and Microorganisms" (FQM- 286) has developed an acid hydrolysis procedure whereby precursor materials for biofuels and other high -value-added products are obtained from beer bagasse. Its content in lipids and food fibre (equal to or more than 5% and 20%, dry weight, respectively), make it an ideal material for this application. This would represent a more attractive commercial outlet for many of the residues resulting from operations of the agro-food industry, and in particular, for beer bagasse. The object of the process is to obtain two different products. The first is an oil consisting mainly of the fats contained in the bagasse; the second is a substance rich in sugars or molasses. The oil is of interest as raw material for the production of biodiesel by the process of transesterification; the molasses can be employed as raw material for the production of bio-ethanol by means of fermentation. Molasses can also be formulated as sugar, after a crystallization process. The oil would be particularly useful for correcting the viscosity of biodiesel, thus achieving the optimum parameters for its use as biofuel. In outline, the process developed by the research group consists of a principal line, in which a series of operations take place for the conditioning of the bagasse, such as milling, extraction of lipids and the separation of the resulting solids. Downstream, this line divides into two secondary lines: in one line, for production of oils, the solvents from the prior extraction stage are separated out; in the other secondary line, for the production of molasses, an acid hydrolysis of the sugars is carried out. Another significant feature is that the optimum operating mode of the process is continuous operation, although batch loading is also accepted.
Universidad de Cádiz posted this:New procedure for the elimination of nutrients from waste waters by photobiotreatment with microalgasUCA researchers have developed a new process for the treatment of waste waters by using microalgae, specifically for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. This process is based on applying three fundamental findings made by the research group: • Before the microalgae start to grow, they are already consuming nitrogen and phosphorus when cultivated in waste waters. • The microalgae accumulate nutrients internally in such a way that the assimilation of nutrients commences before the growth phase, and at a rate that is considerably faster than the rate during the generation of biomass. • The initial elimination of nutrients prior to the growth of biomass takes place at a similar rate both in darkness and in the presence of light. To exploit this phenomenon, a procedure has been designed in which the two phases take place separately in two reactors: the first phase for elimination of nutrients from the waste water in darkness (known as ‘luxury uptake’) and the second for the growth of biomass under illumination. What this achieves is not only the efficient removal of the nutrients from the waste water but also, by means of a simple change of the mode of operation of the process, nutrients can be eliminated at night using the excess of biomass generated during daylight hours. To implement this advance, the research group has conceived a process for the separation of the biomass from the culture medium in both phases, by means of membrane technologies. The treatment plant can operate with cellular retention times very much longer than the hydraulic residence times. This, in turn, allows the same flow volumes of waste water to be treated in smaller reactors. • It enables waste waters to be treated at night without the need for a luminous phase. This cannot currently be done with the processes that employ existing photosynthetic organisms. • Simplicity of operation and reduction of costs in comparison with conventional technologies. It avoids the production of more solid residues, i.e. sludges, which require disposal. • The use of microalgae allows the treatment of waste waters with high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus but low content of organic matter (a characteristic of the waste waters of steelworks), since autotrophic organisms are involved. Thus the proposed process avoids the need to add organic matter from an external source, as is the case of other biological processes. • With the possibility of generating energy and capturing CO2, the biomass generated in the process represents value added in terms of energy consumption and environmental protection
Universitat de València posted this:Nitrogen removal control system based on low-cost sensorsThis control system allows optimization of the activated sludge process since maintains effluent nitrogen concentration under limit values with minimum energy consumption. The most remarkable advantages provided by this technology are: Cost reduction of initial investment and maintenance Easier operation than nutrient analysers Lower time response Lower aireation energy consumption Lower pumping energy consumption
Universitat de València posted this:Nanocomposites for electrochemical supercapacitorsThe new materials have the following advantages over existing materials in supercapacitor’s sector: Supercapacitive properties: they have specific capacitance values much higher than those obtained by commercial nanostructured carbon electrodes. Low cost: obtained by a chemical process of a single stage, with a single precursor, at low temperature, and highly available, non-polluting and low cost materials. Good cyclability: testing in cyclability is promising in terms of electrochemical and mechanical stability. In parallel to its advantages as supercapacitors, the nanocomposites show the advantages associated with the following additional properties: Giant magnetoresistance, GMR: this property is observed at room temperature, and high magnetic fields are not needed. Source of carbon nanoforms: based on the nanocomposite, can be obtained a mixture of carbon nanoforms consisting of nano-onions and multi-walled nanotubes.
Universitat de València posted this:Passive sensor for in situ detection of amines in atmospheres Simplicity and ease of use: it is a passive colorimetric sensor that does not require any kind of pretreatment or power supply or external instrument. Low cost: simple fabrication process without high costs Low detection limits: suitable for use in real atmospheres, of the order of 3 mg/m3. Quantitative detection: direct quantitative detection can be carried out by diffuse reflectance of the sensors. Stability: against a wide range of temperatures and to humidity and solar radiation. Reversion resistance.
Universitat de València posted this:New method for the production of metallic oxides with spinel structureThis procedure is faster, with lower energy consumption and generates purer spinels than known methods for spinel production. With this invention, it’s possible to provide new methods for obtaining spinels or other mixed oxides with a higher processability and versatility than those existing to date, allowing also for obtaining new spinels and removing the need for extremely costly phases in time or energy, including milling or heating at temperatures up to 1200ºC.
Universidad de Alicante posted this:Solar energy use for water potabilization by electrodialysisA Spanish research group owns the know-how for the desalination of saline water for human consumption or irrigation by means of systems of electrodialysis powered by photovoltaic solar energy. The main advantages are that it is non-polluting and has a low maintenance cost. The technology is fully developed and useful for organisations dealing with water supply problems. A partner to set up the electrodialysis-photovoltaic system in its facilities and/or carry out feasibility studies is sought. Innovative aspects: The desalination system makes use of renewable energy, so it is respectful with the environment and not contributing to the climatic change. Desalination system for remote areas with access to saline reservoirs, where the supply of electricity is particularly expensive or even non-existent, or for coastal zones where there are saline aquifers and the hydric resources are scarce.
xrqtc posted this:Polymorphism Prediction in Crystal Systems of Technological InterestCurrent polymorphism studies are being carried out using one of the following three alternatives: atom-atom potentials, DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations and ad-hoc potentials. However, all of them have serious disadvantatges. 1) with software that uses atom-atom potentials: Advantages: fast and capable of working with large molecules. Disadvantages: the "blind tests" carried out by the "Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre" are giving a 50% maximum success in the predictions. 2) with software based on DFT calculations: Advantages: good results Disadvantages: they are computationally very slow, so they are only used for very simple molecules compared with drug molecules. In addition, they have errors predicting van der Waals interactions and weak hydrogen bridges if not corrected empirically. 3) with software using ad hoc potentials for each molecule obtained from systematic exploration of the surface potential of intermolecular interactions: Advantages: efficient and faster. Disadvantages: some potentials should be calculated for each molecule studied, which are complex and slow, and is not general. The approach presented here is new and unique because the potential Pixel has never been used before for drawing polymorphic predictions and it has shown to present the advantages of all the alternatives combined. This is the first research group which has brought the potential Pixel to this level of calculation. The potential calculations and the applicability of the methode based on pixels have the same quality that the sophisticated ab initio based potential calculations. Besides, this is much faster than DFT (Functional-Based Theory)-based and ad hoc potentials ..
Universidad de Cádiz posted this:New specific and optimized culture medium based on glycerine that increases the yield of processes for producing ethanol and hydrogenExploitation of the large amounts of glycerine produced as a by-product of the production of biodiesel and similar industrial processes. The employment of this culture medium increases the production yield of ethanol and hydrogen, in comparison with that obtained from the use of other sources of carbon. The effect of optimizing the culture medium is to reduce the costs and save energy in the industrial-scale fermentation process. No other alternative culture media exist that have been formulated and optimized for E. coli that would allow greater production yields of ethanol to be obtained. It represents a simple and attractive way of producing hydrogen and ethanol from a carbon source of low price and in plentiful supply. The high degree of reduction of the glycerine, in comparison with sugars, allows reduced chemical compounds such as succinate, xylitol, propionate, hydrogen and others to be obtained.
Universidad de Alcalá-OTRI posted this:Analysis and heuristic optimization software system for wind farm design.The utilization of technologies of soft computing has been vaguely applied to the optimization of the design of wind farms, and only with a limited set of parameters. Gheode group has developed a series of algorithms that consider in a much more realistic way the designing of parks, having in addition a great versatility to incorporate improvements or made-to-measure expansions for every client in particular.
Carlos Barrera posted this:
Ranjit Guru posted this:
Chief Technology Officer at Delta Foams Radical Technology Solutions
RAMOT at Tel Aviv University Ltd. posted this:Miniature Air Vehicle Controlled and Propelled by Active Flow ControlMiniature Air Vehicle Controlled and Propelled by Active Flow Control Project ID : 9-2007-79
RAMOT at Tel Aviv University Ltd. posted this:Improving Power Output in Partial Shading of Photovoltaic PanelsA controllable circuit for maximizing and stabilizing output power in PV panels under conditions of partial shading. The low cost high reliability device allows maximum power to be extracted during uneven shading conditions. Furthermore, the output power curve is quite linear without multiple peaks which makes it easy to sync several PV sources together. Project ID : 6-2012-299