Summary of the technology
Isolation and Characterization of Live Yeast Cells from Ancient Vessels as a Tool in Bio-Archeology
Key words: ancient fermented food and beverages, ancient pottery vessels, beer,
bio-archeology, experimental archeology, yeasts
Project ID : 18-2019-8739
Description of the technology
Experimental archaeology is a field of research that studies ancient cultures by trying to reconstruct ancient lifestyles. Extensive evidence of wine and beer production in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Near East as early as the mid-4th millennium BCE has been discovered.
There have been several attempts to recreate ancient beer and wine, but those were always brewed using modern ingredients combined with modern domesticated commercial yeast and not with the actual microorganisms that might have been used in the production of these fermented beverages.
Aromatic and flavorful beer produced from original beverage-producing ancient yeast strains.
- Ancient yeast was isolated from ancient vessels (dated 3100-500 BCE) excavated at archaeological sites in Israel, the holy land. Vessels belong to vessel types that, based on their shape, or organic residue analysis, were considered to have contained fermented beverages such as Beer and Mead (honey wine).
- Drinkable alcoholic beverages (~6% alcohol) using a standard common recipe of beer brewing
- The flavor and aroma assessments were performed according to the BJCP’s judge procedure manual (https://www.bjcp.org/judgeprocman.php)
Large amounts of yeast cells that grew during repeated series of fermentations in the vessels, in antiquity, were absorbed into the nanopores of the vessels. These yeast cells altered the composition of the microorganisms’ population and remained as microcolonies, which continued to grow and survive over millennia in the ceramic matrices, based on occasional supply of moisture and nutrients.